Religion in Vietnam on Wikipedia proclaims: “Officially, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is an atheist state”.
That statement is perfectly correct and needs no further argument. However, do pay attention to the keyword “officially”, because the actual question is: how about “informally”? Now, this gives room for debate.
Feudal Vietnam was mostly a Buddhist country but Vietnam under Socialism declares no national religion, and most of its population also don’t “officially” follow any particular belief. Normally, when we fill in application forms that asks for religions, we always tick “none”. Nevertheless, it doesn’t mean Vietnamese people are all “non-believers” as reported.
Vietnamese society is strongly influenced by the Chinese Taoism, Confucianism and of course Buddhism. We worship our ancestors, believe in life after death, in gods, in human spirits, in evils, in superpower, in oh-so-many-things. We are taught the 5 ethical concepts of “Humaneness” (nhân), “Righteousness” (nghĩa), “Propriety” (lễ), “Knowledge” (trí), “Integrity” (tín) by family and schools at a very early age. We always show filial piety to our parents and respect for elderly people. And most of all, we go to pray at pagodas and temples all the time!
Now let’s talk statistics. The page about Vietnam on Wikipedia reveals some interesting figures:
“According to the General Statistics Office of Vietnam’s report for 1 April 2009, 6.8 million (or 7.9% of the total population) are practicing Buddhists, 5.7 million (6.6%) are Catholics, 1.4 million (1.7%) are adherents of Hòa Hảo, 0.8 million (0.9%) practise Cao Đài, and 0.7 million (0.9%) are Protestants. In total, 15,651,467 Vietnamese (18.2%) are formally registered in a religion (…) According to a 2007 report, 81% of Vietnamese people do not believe in God.”
Personally, I quite skepticize the number 81% given by the “2007 report”. Probably whoever carried out the survey didn’t do it carefully enough. Even the word “God” was not explained clearly. If “God” here was meant to be Christianity’s God then even if we say “no”, would it be a rush to conclude that we are “atheists”? I think if the question were “do you believe in spirits?” 99.9% of Vietnamese would nod because we have been growing up with an altar in the house worshiping our ancestors and gods (not capitalized!). Everything has a god to control it here in Vietnam: god of wealth, god of earth, god of river, god of jungle, god(s) of kitchen, god of etc.(!) Vietnamese people are superstitious, we believe in whatever told and we need no explanation for that. That’s how the culture has brought us up and we are sorry if your “Why?” never gets an appropriate answer.
2 years ago I went to this interesting talk with Australian Vietnamese lecturer Kim Huynh about some bizarre traditions in Vietnam and I still remember this point: the barrier of becoming an authorized follower of any religions in different cultures are extremely diverse. In Western culture, one may say he is Christian but only goes to church once every 2-3 months, while in Vietnam you will meet a lot of non-Buddhists that go to pagoda every week. That’s a fact.
My grandma is a Buddhist. She goes to pagodas every weekend, she has an altar to worship Buddha next to the ancestors’ altar in her house and spends 2-4 hours everyday to pray at home. She was a vegetarian for a long time until my uncles stopped her because they said veggie food didn’t provide her with enough nutrition (!). And in Vietnam, social assumption is that you can only become a Buddhist if you do like my grandma. That is why my mom is not a Buddhist even though she reads lots of books about Buddhism, she worships Buddha, she eats veggie food on the first, the last and the 15th day of every lunar month, but she doesn’t have time to do the 2-4 hours praying every day (yet).
In conclusion, if “atheist” means a person who disbelieves or lacks belief in the existence of God or gods (as defined in thefreedictionary) then now you can judge it yourself if Vietnam is an atheist country or not.
*Disclaimer: This blog post is my personal opinion only, and is subject to providing you with ZERO assistance in any academic research on religions in Vietnam. Apology.